2000s in fashion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article describes the many fashions and trends commonly seen in the world during the 2000s. Throughout the period many styles linked with 1990s anti-fashion remain popular in the 2000s though there have been considerable changes as well. (see also 1990s in fashion).
 Early 2000s (2000 – 2002)
The early 2000s consisted of a collaboration of clothes from the last 40 years up until the new millennium. Most of it also retained much from the late 90's.
- Heavy metal fashion was worn by a notable subculture of teenagers until 2003 due to the popularity of nu metal bands, and remains common among the youth in the US, parts of Europe (especially Greece, Scandinavia and Germany) and Latin America.
- Pop punk fashion characterized by wearing baggy jeans, wristbands, spikey hair, patrol caps or trucker hats, Aviator sunglasses, and full-zip hoodies (which are now urban and preppy in the late 2000s) was very popular in the early 2000s. This was due to the success of bands such as Blink-182, Lit, and Sum 41.
- Hip-hop fashions (especially hoodies and sweatpants) influenced many subcultures including chav, juggalo and gangsta. 
- Within Hip Hop clothing, Denim-jean jackets with matching jeans were popular,along with track suits (primarily made of fleece that matched top and bottom usually worn with a headband for guys). Bandanas with rhinestones were popular from late 2000 to early 2002 and Phat farm shoes and apparel were extremely popular during this time.
- Daisy Dukes, Uggs and cowboy boots have been worn by girls throughout the decade.
- The "Tough Guys Wear Pink" craze hits young members of the hipster and prep subculture. 
- Within the mainstream, wristbands compromised of three colours were in usu.(Red,Blue and White or the Rasta coloured - Red,Green and Yellow) (2003)
- Trucker hats and vintage t-shirts from American Eagle and its many counterparts were high in popularity (2003).
 Mid 2000s (2003 – 2006)
- Gel bracelets became briefly popular in 2004
- During most of the early and mid 2000s, it was unfashionable to wear formal clothing unless it was in the business world, church, and special events due to the popularity of the "smart casual" style. This changed in the autumn of 2006, when the power suit received worldwide popularity amongst young men for its structured design.
- Sagging, popularised by rappers, lost its appeal around 2006 as expensive, close-fitting designer jeans rose in popularity, particularly amongst men. Baggy and loose styles of the 90's gave way to bootcut and flare jeans popularised by 7 for all Mankind, True Religion, Rock & Republic and Diesel S.p.A..
- Men and Women began to wear skinny-fit lowrise jeans that became even more popular later in the decade as jeans' waistlines were cut as low as possible. Hip- hugging, denim mini-skirts were also worn.
- Designer glasses (often with thick rims), sunglasses such as Ray Ban Wayfarers, aviators, and rim-less glasses became widely available and extremely popular as geek chic went mainstream. This trend started about 2004 and has continued into the late 2000s for both males and females.
- In Hip Hop, the throwback jersey and baggy pants (popular in the 90's to 2003) was replaced with the more "Grown Man" Look which was highly popularized and brought in by controversial rapper, Kanye West.
- Polo tops, and stripped dress shirts were the norm amongst young males, especially pink polo tops popularized by rapper Cam'ron.
- Nike Air Force 1 shoes and Converse Chuck Taylor All-Star were popular footwear.
- Dickie pants amongst hip hop fashion became popular in 2005.
- Handkercheifs or bandanas (of various styles and colours) worn around the neck usually forming a V-type shape became popular in mid-2006 and into 2007.
- Japanese kimonos and lacquer jewelry came in during 2006, inspired by the film release of Memoirs of a Geisha (film).
- Military attire became popular among indie fans. Men originally wore surplus dress jackets which were later produced by companies for the civilian market while women wore versions with more feminine lace or beading on it. Camouflage patterns, bandanas or shemaghs are frequently worn as scarves by young people in winter.
- Boho-chic: 60s/70s patterns with ethnic jewelry (popular again in Summer 2008)
- Shoes and boots with long, extremely pointed toes were worn by both men and women in the mid-2000s.
- In 2005, other styles that appeared on the scene were Capri pants or pinocchietti as they were called in Italy, where they were popular. These usually stopped at just below the knee, and could be worn casually with sandals, dressed up with high heels, or worn with boots in winter.
- Bright colored plastic clogs known as Crocs were a brief fad in the summer of 2006.
 Late 2000s (2007 – 2009)
- 2007 saw a return of leggings for women. These were worn with long, fitted tunic tops, or baby-doll dresses and shirts with empire waists. As in the 1980s, they were sometimes paired with mini skirts. Purple and mustard yellow were the fashionable colours. In 2007, ballerina flats returned, and the toes of shoes were rounded, replacing the pointed-toed shoe popular in the middle of the decade. Boots came in a variety of sizes, with the heels high and geometric in shape.
- The late 2000s saw a return to the grunge look of the early-to mid 90's in mens fashion: flannel shirts worn with bright colored shirts underneath, T-shirts worn with long sleeved thermal shirts, vans, beanie hats, work boots and ripped loose-fitting stonewashed jeans.
- Flannel and lumberjack tops worn with skinny-jeans
- 2007-2008 saw a strong increase in the basic elements of the late 1960s and early 1970s. Many store owners began to influence the green movement, as well as did the celebrities. Light pinks mixed with duller colors such as grey, and mauve is popular in the winter and fall seasons. In spring and summer lines some designers featured light weave cloths with beading, along with cork wedge shoes which were usually used as well. In late 2008, more 1940s, 1950s, 1980s, and 1990s style fashions are starting to come in.
- Argyle patterns became popular in 2007 and 2008.
- Deck shoes, specifically the Sperry Top-Sider brand, become popular with teenagers and college students in the spring of 2007 and have remained popular into 2009.
- For a quick period of time during the spring of 2008 Gladiator inspired sandals, and long dresses that flowed free from a small cut for the breast area became very popular, suggesting a roman/Greek inspired look which was also an on and off trend for the 60s. Many light floral patterns were used for young girls.
- Baseball caps, particularly flat billed designs by New Era, are popular for casual wear among teenagers. Once confined to the gangsta subculture, these caps are now popular among many different groups and have become more mainstream. 
- During Autumn/Winter 2008, purple (particularly in a plum shade) was very popular.
 Hair and Makeup Style of the 2000s
- Women's hair is long and straight. Later in the decade retro hairstyles like the bob cut (like that worn by pop singer Rihanna) and beehive (a trademark of pop singer Amy Winehouse) came back into fashion.
- In the late 2000s the crop (previously only seen on punks and lesbians) and pixie cut became acceptable after celebrities like Agyness Deyn, Stine Bramsen, Victoria Beckham and Rihanna had their hair cut short. Perms come back for women in 2009.
- Late 2008 in the U.S. saw the return of thicker long hair seen in the early to mid-90's. This will continue on with higher intensity in 2009. Many women wear hair down to the upper shoulders with curls. Mens hairstyles are influenced by the 1940s, 1950s, 1980s,, and 1990s: the pompadour (worn by Mexicans and Italian-Americans then popularised by celebrities like Christian Bale) flat top haircut (often worn to show support for the military) and the buzzcut, a haircut associated with 90s grunge.
- In Europe spiked hair, sometimes bleached blond, is often seen on metrosexual men. Since the early 2000s styles like the French Crop and crew cut have been popular with chavs and the fauxhawk made a comeback in Britain and the US thanks to David Beckham.
- Longer styles are coming into acceptance for younger males, whether loose or in a ponytail. The latter is preferred in the workplace as hair below the eyes may be unacceptable for some employers.
- From late 2005 and on a popular haircut for teenage boys was the Wings. It can range from very long to a Beatles Haircut. The haircut is typically wavy and, if straight, the length comes to halfway down the ears. Instead of lying on the wearer's ears, the hair flips up and comes straight out like an airplane wing, hence the name. This hairstyle is also known as "flippies" and was popularised by skateboarders.
- In early 2009, a shorter 1950s inspired hairstyle and longer styles inspired by British rock bands came into play. Another popular style consists of a long fringe similar to the type seen on emo kids, but in natural colors.
- Recently a wider variant of the mohawk extending to just above the temples has become popular among chavs: shaved at the sides and back and longer (usually spiky) on top.
- Beards, mustaches, and the goatee are worn by many men following the success of Movember fundraising for prostate cancer charities.
 Subcultures of the 2000s
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The defining features of the chav or charver clothing is the Burberry pattern (notably a now-discontinued baseball cap) and from a variety of other casual and sportswear brands like Adidas, Lacoste, Umbro or Le Coq Sportif. This British fashion has many similarities to the casuals, a football fan subculture that first appeared in the 1980s. Other names for them include Skeets (Newfoundland), Neds (Scotland), Spides (Northern Ireland), Gurriers (Dublin), Lads, Rats, Station Rats or Bogans (Australia), Dres (Poland) and wiggers (US). Tracksuits, hoodies, track suit bottoms, gold jewellery (including chains and sovereign rings) and baseball caps are particularly associated with this sub-culture. Footwear is either white trainers or Rigger boots as many work in the construction industry. The female counterpart wears either a grey or pink sweatsuit with large hoop earrings or a denim miniskirt and white high heels like an Essex girl. Her hair (someitmes dyed blonde) is tied back into a tight ponytail (known as a Croydon facelift) and she carries an oversized handbag. The preferred music is jungle, Contemporary R&B, gangsta rap and Grime. In some parts of Britain chavs and other subcultures hold each other in contempt as what a person wears is seen as a lifestyle choice, defining 'who you are'. The Chav subculture is often stereotyped as being associated with anti social behaviour and ASBOs.
Moshers were the chav's main rivals in the early 2000s and like them mostly came from working class (occasionally middle class) backgrounds. The name comes from moshing, a dance done by fans at rock concerts. They enjoyed skateboarding and often formed their own rock bands, influencing the indie scene of the late 2000s. They wore loose-fitting jeans (sometimes covered in rivets, zips and chains), band T-shirts, trenchcoats (usually made of black leather), camoflage combat trousers, lumberjack shirts, army boots and full-zip hoodies (normally in black). Girls wore plaid miniskirts and Alice bands and both sexes had long messy hair. The preferred music was alternative rock, grunge, classic rock, NWOBHM, nu-metal, hardcore punk, garage rock and pop punk (for younger moshers). With the arrival of emo music around 2003, this subculture began to fade into obscurity with the majority becoming indie kids. The remaining moshers, (along with many former chavs) evolved into the British equivalent of the American scene kid. A derogatory word for them was "grebo".
Indie draws upon retro fashions from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, (especially mod, hippie, punk and grunge). It was popularised in the mid-2000s by the bands on the emerging indie rock scene. Originally Indie was used to describe kids that didn’t associate themselves with any subculture but since the early 2000s it has evolved into a subculture in its own right, becoming almost as common as the chav. Clothings include fedoras, scarves, Converse Chuck Taylor All-Star shoes, Doc Martens, waistcoats, cardigans, checked shirts, white or black full-zip hoodies with brightly colored cartoon print designs(in yellow, blue, green and red), plastic belts with similar designs to the hoodies, winklepickers, canvas shoes, bootcut or drainpipe jeans, cartoon t-shirts, fishtail parkas and anoraks with fur hoods, leg warmers, and headbands combined with hair tied up in the back for girls. Since early 2008 tweed jackets have become popular with indie kids, replacing the military jackets worn in the mid 2000s.
 New Rave
New Rave is a British subculture that became popular around 2006 with the rise of bands such as Klaxons, Hadouken!, Cansei de Ser Sexy and New Young Pony Club. The style is closely linked to that of indie, such as the use of skinny jeans and also has connotations of the original rave scene, namely the use of glowsticks, tripp pants (among American ravers) and day-glo clothing. Hairstyles are the same as indie, with fringes being very popular; synthetic hair falls for women are also common. While mainly used to describe the music, new rave can also be used to describe the style. New Rave came into the mainstream in 2007 as neon colours became fashionable. As Nu-Rave became mainstream, with many of the fundamental Nu-Rave pieces in UK chain-stores, the look has decreased in popularity in fashion terms as of 2008.
A trend and subculture evolving from skate punk, chav and emo and closely tied in with the new rave and Indie subcultures. Scene kids are typically suburban middle-class teenagers. In the early 2000s scene fashion was influenced by metal, pop punk and the goth subculture but since the mid-2000s they have gone for a more retro 1980s-inspired indie look. It is becoming increasingly common in the USA, Australia and the UK. Hairstyles vary, though currently the most common seems to be razor cut hair, or flat-ironed straight hair with dyed streaks sometimes called raccoon ('coon) tails and bangs. Fashion mainly consists of skinny jeans, band t-shirts, hoodies, miniskirts, leggings, bullet belts, name brand clothes/handbags, skateboarding apparel (fur-hood parkas, skate brand t-shirts etc), wristbands of various designs, Converse, Vans, & flats seen as typical scene shoes. Typical colors for clothing include black with bright colors. Notable fads include being straight edge and using "text talk" on their myspace, bebo and facebook accounts. Many are also vegetarians or vegans, generally because it is considered cool rather than for ethical or health reasons.
Preppy remains a common style in American/Canadian high-schools and is a continuation of 1990s fashion. Preps can be identified by expensive designer clothes and sportswear. In the early 2000s upturned collars were often worn by preps but now this is no longer fashionable. Boys wear varsity jackets in the school's colors khaki slacks, cardigans, striped polos and Oxford shirts while girls wear big sunglasses, pink tops, flare jeans, Daisy Dukes, Uggs (worn by both sexes) or short skirts and flip-flops. The TV series Gossip Girl is a big influence. The Asian equivalent of preppy is Gyaru & Gyaruo. Around early 2005 preps began adopting elements of hip-hop fashion: Members Only jackets, bape hoodies, track jackets, pinstriped shirts, full-zip hoodies, baggy horizontally striped polos, Nike, and baggy jeans; this new style is known as Urban Prep.. Artists such as Nelly, Usher, Kanye West, Jonas Brothers, Jennifer Lopez, and Mariah Carey were trying to influence this style. In Dublin, Ireland, the preppy style is known as the D4 style, referring to an upperclass area of Dublin, the postcode being Dublin 4. This trend has become popular across Ireland in the past few years. Normally the trend for boys is to wear designer polo shirts, normally Abercrombie, Hollister or Ralph Lauren, with an Abercrombie hoodie, low rise baggy jeans or Fat Man pants and Dubarry shoes, which are deck shoes and known locally as 'Dubes'. Boys' hair is alike the surfer style popular in parts of Australia, the UK and the USA. The girls wear tight fitting t-shirts, Abercrombie hoodies or baggy cardigans.
 Sloane Ranger
Sloane Ranger fashion while in many ways similar to preppy fashion is different in that it is contained exclusively to Great Britain. In the UK this trend was at first only popular in the high-income areas where preppy stores selling such brands as Hollister, Abercrombie & Fitch and American Eagle were located. However, with internet shopping rising and stores such as Jack Wills becoming widespread, this look is mainstream. For the men, skinny jeans are common, only in dark colours, excluding black which is considered emo, which must be designer. This is usually accessorised with a polo shirt, preferably by Jack Wills or Abercrombie, and a v-neck jumper by Crew or Ralph Lauren. Hair is mid-length yet is cut conservatively, and is often messy. Shoes can include anything from Converse All-Stars to Nike Airs (albeit very worn out ones. For the females it is common to wear rah-rah skirts, tank tops, huge designer sunglasses with Ugg boots or ballet pumps. Common brands include Abercrombie, Jack Wills, Ralph Lauren and Crew. Hair is often blonde, and always messy and piled on the top of head.
Emo fashion is associated with black skinny jeans on males (sometimes with boxer shorts showing) and females alike, long fringe (bangs) brushed to one side of the face or over one or both eyes, dyed black, straight hair, tight t-shirts which often bear the names of bands (or other designed shirts), wristbands, snakebite piercings, makeup for both sexes (particular black eyeliner), studded belts, belt buckles, brothel creepers, canvas sneakers (such as Vans or Converse brands), or other black shoes (often old and beaten up) and thick, black horn-rimmed glasses. Emo fashion has changed with time and is sometimes characterized as a fad.. They are often confused with scene kids. They are commonly united by the music they like and consist of a transection of the classes.
Boho-chic is a fashion that has become popular with women aged 18–30. Boho currently, is reviving many looks from the 1940s, 1950s, 1960's, 70's and 80's. A loose, baggy silhouette is fashionable with dresses and tops. Some looks the boho style is beginning to revive are high waisted pants and skirts, off shoulder tops and dresses and neon colors, and floral patterns and tie-dye. Big, bulky bags and peace sign necklaces are also becoming a new trend. Dresses that include loose, baggy tops and tight bottoms have become very desirable within this fashion.
The urban or gangsta style, includes baggy jeans in dark washes. Jeans can sometimes be as low as right below the buttocks. Huge shirts a few sizes too big for the wearer in patterns, Jewelry is a part of the urban look, symbolizing religion, beliefs and self-glorification. Jewelry consists of gold chains, rings, etc. Baseball caps with flat brims are worn twisted to any side, backwards, or straight forward. This style was first worn by young black males before being adopted by other races (see chav). "Bling" or "Ice" was a word used to often describe jewelry in the early 2000s but is less popular than it once was. Gangstas of all races are into lowriders: heavily-modified luxury cars from the 1960s and 1990s. A related subculture, known as Cholo, is common amongst some members of the Mexican-American community. Unlike black gangstas who either shave their heads or grow cornrows cholos tend to have slicked back hair. The look is based on the clothing of Mexican prison gangs: baggy khaki jeans, bandanas in the color of their particular gang and white T-shirts.
"Guido" fashion is popular among many young adults and teens in US cities like New York. Fashionable labels from the guido style include Armani Exchange, Dolce & Gabbana, Lacoste, Versace, and more. Males who follow this trend usually have spiked hair (sometimes frosted), polos and teeshirts which are tucked behind a large beltbuckle, Scally caps (usually made of polyester) with designer labels like Kangol, muscle shirts, ripped acid washed jeans, flashy gold jewellery, "stunna shades" and both ears pierced. Girls of this fashion follow more of a modern version of the Boho style. Their clothes include the same silhouettes of the boho style but more modern patterns and colors. Juicy Couture is a trendy brand to go with this subculture along with the labels listed above for boys. Guidos can usually be stereotyped for going clubbing. This style is often associated with stereotypes of Italian Americans in the Northeast, particularly New Jersey, New York and Connecticut.
Cybergoth is a 21st-century evolution of goth. Unlike previous gothic fashions which focused on more "romantic" or "punk" look, modern cybergoth fashion is highly influenced by science fiction, the rivethead subculture and a "futuristic" look, often incorporating PVC and fetish clothing. Along with the staple of black, bright neon colors also became popular, along with black trousers (not jeans) tucked into black boots and accessories such as goggles, neon hair extensions, and gas masks. The music genres most commonly associated with such fashion are futurepop and aggrotech.
Raggare is a Swedish subculture based on American greasers. Like their 1950s counterparts they wear leather jackets, cowboy boots and blue Levi's or Wrangler Jeans. They are also seen in Japan where they are known as Bosozoku. A related subculture, the Teddy boy, is popular in parts of Russia including Moscow. Raggare love kustoms, Custom cars, Hot rods, classic cars, muscle cars, Americana and rockabilly..
Lolita fashion is mostly popular in Japan. It is usually worn by girls, and is inspired by vintage children's clothes from Victorian times, and is made to look a lot doll-like. The Lolita look consists primarily of a knee length skirt or dress, headdress, blouse, petticoat, knee length socks or stockings and rocking horse or high heel/platform shoes. There are a lot of variations of the Lolita look, like Sweet Lolita, Punk Lolita and a more mature version known as Elegant Gothic Aristocrat.
Harujuku mixes the styles of many subcultures, including hip-hop, Visual Kei, glam rock, Lolita, steampunk, greaser, New Romantic, goth, decora, cosplay, punk and ganguro. Men often wax their hair to be more anime like, and would usually have spiked long hair (often dyed bright colors) with bangs covering one side of their eye to achieve an androgynous look or they would fringe the front occasionally and wear makeup. Girls often dress in lolita skirts mixed with other styles, school uniforms or modified traditional clothing like the kimono, cheongsam or Yukata.
Electroclash mainly refers to the music style, but can also be used to describe the fashion that goes with it. Electroclash is influenced by the New Romanticism fashion of the early 80s. It first attracted media attention in 2001 and peaked in popularity between 2002 and 2004. Followers of the Electroclash fashion usually wear studded metal belts, tight black trousers, accessories of ultra violet or neon, punk style fashion, and clothing related to 1980s fashion. Big trend setters in the Electroclash fashion are Noel Fielding, Peaches and Miss Kittin. Electroclash is also associated with the music and fashion of Dance Punk, and its sub genre Nu Rave. Although the Electroclash fashion is no longer as popular, it is still fairly popular, being influenced by newer bands like Robots in Disguise.
A selection of images related to the period.
Lower back tattoos, an early-2000s fad
Raver in Baggy jeans, 2007
Gothic woman, 2008.
In late 2008, especially in Italy, the denim waistcoat was a popular feminine fashion accessory.
In the winter of 2008/2009, purple and black were trendy colours for Italian scene girls.
 External links
 See also
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 21st century fashion|
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- ^ John Harris. "New Rave? Old rubbish | Music | The Guardian". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2006/oct/13/electronicmusic.popandrock. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Bang Face - The Rebirth of Rave, Part One". Ravetalk.co.uk. http://www.ravetalk.co.uk/bangface1.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Muse love new rave | News | NME.COM". Nme.com. December 1, 2006. http://www.nme.com/news/muse/25286. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Rave reviews - Fashion - Entertainment - theage.com.au". Theage.com.au. http://www.theage.com.au/news/fashion/rave-reviews/2005/08/26/1124563029403.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ Rave Culture
- ^ "New Rave Biography". Tiscali.co.uk. Saturday , October 18, 2008. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/music/biography/new_rave_biog.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "The Scene Kid Subculture vs. Emos - News Article - AbsolutePunk.net". Absolutepunk.net. http://www.absolutepunk.net/showthread.php?t=308135. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Hottopic.com - Apparel". Hottopic.com. http://www.hottopic.com/hottopic/home/apparel_landing.jsp?FOLDER%3C%3Efolder_id=2534374302028372&bmUID=1213481310412. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Inside the clash of the teen subcultures - National - smh.com.au". Smh.com.au. http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/scene-kids-are-like-so-not-wannabe-emos/2008/03/29/1206207488553.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "'Scene kids' will destroy democracy - Opinion". Media.www.timesdelphic.com. http://media.www.timesdelphic.com/media/storage/paper1086/news/2006/12/14/Opinion/scene.Kids.Will.Destroy.Democracy-2551750.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ Scene kid wearing bullet belt
- ^ Ross Haenfler (2006). Rutgers University Press. ed. Straight Edge: Hardcore Punk, Clean Living Youth, and Social Change. pp. 10–11. ISBN 0-81353-851-3. http://books.google.es/books?id=tBdorzpPbbsC&pg=PA10&vq=drug&dq=Scene&source=gbs_search_s.
- ^ Varsity jackets
- ^ Denim hot pants aka daisy dukes
- ^ Gossip Girl
- ^ "JapanLinked - Gyaru Gal Styles". Japanlinked.com. http://www.japanlinked.com/about_japan/culture/fashion/galstyles.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ Kansai Scene article on Bape
- ^ "Banks (Menswear) Ltd :". Bigtall.uk.com. http://www.bigtall.uk.com/product.asp?dept_id=185&sku=407. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ a b "Incendiary Magazine - Emo - The Meaning of Life or Just of Emo!". Incendiarymag.com. http://www.incendiarymag.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=43. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ Woodward, G, Finding Emos (Nov 2008)
- ^ Isabel Marant
- ^ # ^ The Times Guide to Paris Fashion and Style October 2006
- ^ Boho
- ^ # ^ London Lite, 14 May 2007. "Hippy, hippy chic" was a pun on Hippy Hippy Shake, the title of a 1963 hit record by Swinging Blue Jeans.
- ^ Keyes, Cheryl. Rap Music and Street Consciousness, p. 152
- ^ Jonathan Duffy (Last Updated:). "BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | How bling became king". News.bbc.co.uk. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/3192258.stm. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ * LowriderPimps.com - Online Magazine
- ^ # ^ Cummings, L. (Spring 2004). "Cloth-Wrapped People, Trouble and Power: Pachuco Culture in the Southwest". Journal of the Southwest.
- ^ Copeland, L, Strutting season (Nov 2008)
- ^ ibid
- ^ Boston Nightclub News
- ^ "Now displaying "Cyber and Industrial" from Drac-in-a-Box". Dracinabox.com. http://www.dracinabox.com/maincategory/Cyber_and_Industrial. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ Bosozoku website
- ^ "Swing Dance Clothing". Coopjive.co.uk. http://www.coopjive.co.uk/clothing.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Open Directory - World: Svenska: Samhälle: Subkulturer: Raggare". Dmoz.org. http://www.dmoz.org/World/Svenska/Samh%c3%a4lle/Subkulturer/Raggare//. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Loli-Pop - Auckland Museum New Zealand". Aucklandmuseum.com. http://www.aucklandmuseum.com/405/loli-pop. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ ^ Anonymous, “Gothic Lolita Hair and Make Up”, Gothic & Lolita Bible, vol 4, Nuuberuguu, 2002, pg 79
- ^ "Gothic Lolita". Japaneselifestyle.com.au. http://www.japaneselifestyle.com.au/fashion/gothic_lolita.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "DarkFashionLinks: fashion resources : DFL links: Lolita". Darkfashionlinks.com. http://www.darkfashionlinks.com/Lolita. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.
- ^ "Metropolis - Tokyo feature stories: Face to face with Harajuku - Pictures of Japanese youth". Metropolis.co.jp. http://metropolis.co.jp/tokyofeaturestoriesarchive299/252/tokyofeaturestoriesinc.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-18.